Under normal conditions, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas formed by diatomic H2 molecules. The hydrogen index (pH) characterizes the concentration (more precisely, the activity) of hydrogen ions in solutions.pH is the most important most frequently measured value in aqueous solutions. Roughly speaking pH defines if a solution is acid, neutral or alkaline. It is based on the dissociation of the water molecule and describes the activity of the hydrogen ion. The smaller the pH the higher the activity of the hydrogen ions and vice versa. In practice values between -1 and 15 can be measured. Since pH can be affected by chemicals in the water, pH is an important indicator of water that is changing chemically.Measuring pH in raw sewage can detect excess acid or base conditions that may be the result of a municipal spill or large industrial user discharge. The pH of discharge water must also be monitored to comply with local regulations.
Boron is the only non-metal from group 13 of the elements of the periodic table. It has several forms, the most common of which is amorphous boron, a dark powder. Boron is not present in nature in its pure form, but is included in borax, boric acid, kernite, ulexite, colemanite and borates. Boron and some of its compounds are used in agriculture, medicine, textiles, glass making, plastics and furniture. Often this element enters the reservoirs with wastewater from metallurgical, chemical and other industries, therefore, it is extremely important for enterprises to control the level of boron in wastewater.
Carbon is a tetravalent non-metal; this element is one of the most abundant on Earth and is the basis of all organic substances. Carbon is used in industry much more often than other chemical elements. In particular, Carbon is used in the branches of the national economy, metallurgy and construction. Industries often use technology to measure total organic carbon (TOC). Many companies monitor TOC to determine the quality of the water, efficiency of processes, water treatment, or to remove organic carbon from their wastewater.
Nitrogen is an odorless, colorless and tasteless diatomic gas. Nitrogen is suitable for a wide range of applications in many industries, used for chemical analysis, in spectrometers and thermal analyzers, and is often used in the heat treatment of metals. Liquid nitrogen finds applications in medicine and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, and is used for cooling in chemical and physical research. Often, nitrogen-containing production products enter wastewater, which leads to the pollution of natural waters with ammonia nitrogen. Therefore, for many enterprises it is necessary to monitor and control the level of nitrogen content in wastewater.
Oxygen is the most abundant chemical element on Earth; one of the most important dissolved gases constantly present in surface waters. Measuring dissolved oxygen in water is required for almost any biotechnology. The necessary instruments for the determination of oxygen in water are dissolved oxygen sensors. In addition, oxygen measurement can be carried out using special reagents. These measurements are required for the food, beverage, chemical/petrochemical, pharmaceutical and energy industries.
Fluorine is a monovalent gaseous halogen; is the most reactive non-metal and forms compounds with most other elements. Fluorine is used as a fluorinating agent in the production of various fluorides, in the production of uranium, plastics, etc. In a bound state, fluorine is often used in air conditioning systems and refrigeration equipment. Fluorides are one of the characteristic impurities of ground and groundwater. However, in the production process, in particular in the food industry and the drinking industry, companies need to monitor the permissible level of fluorine and purify wastewater from impurities of fluorine compounds.
Sodium it’s one of the elements which form the mineral Sodium Chloride, commonly referred to as salt. It’s measurement is important within both the natural environment and process environment, though in drinking water production is where most observation occurs as the human intake of high levels of sodium can have adverse health effects.All groundwater contains sodium as most rocks and soils contain sodium compounds that are easily dissolved. The most common sources to elevate sodium levels in water are road salts, sewage, landfills, and industrial sites.
Effective and constant monitoring of water hardness is the key to maintaining quality control across industries. Magnesium compounds must be removed from the water because of its role in water hardness.High levels of magnesium can indicate a risk of corrosion or scale build-up in pipes and other plant infrastructure. Magnesium control allows action to be taken to maximize production efficiency, ensure compliance and control costs.MAIN APPLICATIONS:Drinking water, cooling water, electricity, surface water, waste water, industrial waste water.
Aluminum is a soft and light metal. In nature, aluminum is found only in compounds, in minerals such as bauxite, nepheline, kaolinite, etc. Aluminum is used in many industries for the production of various materials. Aluminum structural elements are essential for the aerospace, transportation and metallurgical industries, as well as construction. Wastewater from various industries often has a high aluminum content. The metal that gets into the water actively dissolves, forming various compounds - hydroxide, bauxite, hydrochloride, etc. A significant part of them are toxic, which has a very negative effect on microorganisms living in natural water sources, seriously worsening the general ecological situation.
Silicon is a non-metal; the second most common element after oxygen.Non-metal is non-toxic, which is why it is often used in various industries. Silicon is the main component of glass, cement, ceramics, bricks and some steels. Also, it is used for the manufacture of semiconductor devices, including solar cells, for the production of alloys. In the case of water preparation for the industrial sector and enterprises, compliance with the standard for the permissible level of Silicon is a prerequisite for the possibility of functioning of the structure itself; water purification from silicon is mandatory for many enterprises. First of all, this applies to water used in the food and beverage industry. Also, the standard for the silicon content has been introduced for the feed water of steam boilers, silicon here is the source of the formation of silicate scale.
Phosphorus is a polyvalent non-metal of the nitrogen group. It occurs naturally in several allotropic forms and is an important element for the life of organisms. This element is never found in pure form, but only in the form of phosphates. Phosphorus is an essential ingredient in fertilizers and is therefore the most commonly used in the agricultural industry. A necessary stage in the operation of production facilities is the control of the level of phosphates in wastewater, since due to poor-quality water treatment, phosphates are often not removed properly, so phosphates can easily get into groundwater and surface waters. Also, in the wastewater of food and dairy industries, it is necessary to regulate the level of phosphorus, which provokes the growth of microorganisms.
Sulfur is a polyvalent non-metal; found in natural waters, where Sulfur is found mainly in the form of sulfate - ion. Hydrogen sulfide in water is a weak acid that easily enters into redox reactions and contributes to a significant acceleration of the corrosion processes of steel elements, the formation of sulfur, sulfides, and under some conditions, more aggressive acids, such as sulfuric. Such acids can corrode plumbing metals (iron, steel, copper and brass, as well as exposed metal parts in other devices that use water). In addition, hydrogen sulfide reduces the efficiency of the water softening process. Sulfates and sulfur are toxic, which seriously impairs the organoleptic characteristics of water. Such water cannot be used for production purposes, which requires enterprises to constantly monitor the level of sulfates and sulfur in wastewater.
Chlorine is a reactive non-metal; easily reacts with almost all metals, oxidizing them to the highest oxidation state and forming salts - chlorides. Chlorine is used in the manufacture of various products, such as antiseptics, dyes, food, paints, petroleum products, plastics, medicines, textiles, and paper products. For enterprises producing mineral and bottled water, drinks, dairy products purified water is a guarantor of product quality, which affects the efficiency of the entire enterprise. To solve this problem in the work of the enterprise, it is necessary to carry out high-quality monitoring and control of the chlorine content in water.
Potassium, one of the most abundant elements, is found in many minerals. Soils contain approximately 1 to 4% potassium. Concentrations of potassium in most drinking water is usually less than 20 mg/L; occasionally brines may contain more than 100 mg/L. The greatest areas of interest in the measurement of potassium levels probably are medicine and agriculture, due to the importance of potassium as a mineral for plants and animals. Potassium salts, particularly potash, are common in fertilizers. Potassium is an important ion in groundwater and is used in analysis for quality control of samples.
Calcium is one of the main parameters in terms of alkalinity and water hardness. In water treatment processes, alkalinity and hardness are monitored to optimize the pH level. In other cases, indicators may indicate a risk of corrosion or scale build-up in pipes and other plant infrastructure. Effective monitoring and control of calcium levels in water will help you take timely action to maximize efficiency, ensure compliance and control costs in your plant.
Chromium is a naturally occurring element that is abundant in rocks, water, air, and soil.Chromium (III) and chromium (VI) are the two most common forms of chromium in water. Cr (III) is essential for humans and is involved in various metabolic processes in the body, while Cr (VI) is carcinogenic. Chromium (VI) is rarely found in nature, it is mainly produced and released into the environment during industrial processes. It is known to be toxic, causing skin disease by contact, lung cancer by inhalation, and possibly other cancers by ingestion. Since chromium (VI) is a strong oxidizing agent, it is harmful to biological systems and therefore requires strict regulation. Cr (VI) can also be formed by oxidation of Cr (III) Mn (III / IV) in drinking water. Therefore, the determination of chromium and Cr (VI) is important for the analysis of drinking water.Chromium Compliance analyzes either total chromium or Cr (VI).
Manganese is a trace mineral, naturally occurring in both groundwater and surface water. Too much manganese can affect colour and taste in drinking water and bottled water beverage applications and can cause staining in fixtures and laundry. So accurate, continuous monitoring of both total and dissolved manganese is crucial to maintaining quality. Whatever the source, concentrations that exceed acceptable levels must be identified and managed.
Iron is found in ground and surface waters and is often viewed as an indicator of ’ water quality during and after the purification process. In some industrial processes, iron can also act as a control parameter. Accurate and continuous monitoring of this metal is critical to maintaining the quality of both manufacturing processes and products. Increased iron concentrations in drinking water are undesirable due to aesthetic considerations such as taste and appearance.Metal salts such as ferric chloride are used in phosphorus removal systems and can be dosed at various locations in the wastewater treatment process. Although orthophosphate (PO4) is a typical metric used to monitor chemical phosphorus removal efficiency and control dosage, businesses need to measure residual iron in downstream processes, such as preventing scale build-up in UV disinfection equipment.Regardless of the source, iron concentrations over acceptable levels must be identified and removed.
Cobalt is a hard, brittle metal that naturally occurs in the environment and is a common by-product of nickel and copper mining. Cobalt can be released into the environment from the combustion of coal or oil, the processing of cobalt-containing ores, and the production and use of cobalt-containing chemicals.Cobalt is often mixed with metals such as iron or nickel to form alloys (mixtures of metals). These alloys are used for the manufacture of parts for gas turbine aircraft engines; corrosion-resistant alloys; magnets.
Nickel is seldom found in natural waters, but often present in industrial wastewater from power plants, metal factories and waste incinerators. It is also used in fertilizers and enters groundwater from farm runoff. The toxicity of nickel to aquatic life varies widely and is influenced by species, pH, synergetic effects, and other factors. Nickel salts have been shown to be toxic.Nickel monitoring and control is an important task and requires special attention in waste water treatment.
Copper is a metal that is widely used in electrical equipment such as wiring and motors, as well as in plumbing materials such as domestic water pipes.An increase in copper levels in tap water indicates damage to the piping network, which is causing copper to leak out of the pipes into the water.Higher levels of copper can be released into the environment from mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and municipal or industrial wastewater discharges into rivers and lakes. In surface waters, copper can travel long distances either as suspended silt particles or as free ions.The copper content in surface and groundwater should be monitored, as at higher concentrations it can be toxic to aquatic organisms.In wastewater, copper can be in a simple ionic form or in the form of complexes of cyanide, chloride or ammonia. Due to the effects of copper on aquatic life, copper levels should be analyzed prior to discharge.
Zinc is a very common naturally occurring metal. Many foods contain zinc in certain concentrations. Drinking water also contains a certain amount of zinc, which can be higher when stored in metal tanks. Industrial sources or landfills for toxic waste can cause the amount of zinc in drinking water to reach levels that could cause health problems. World zinc production continues to grow, and more and more zinc is released into the environment. The water is contaminated with zinc due to the presence of large amounts of zinc in industrial wastewater.Due to the toxic effects of zinc on the environment, a level analysis should be carried out prior to wastewater discharge.
Arsenic is a mineral from the class of native elements, a semi-metal. Arsenic is very often used in industry (as an alloying additive, as well as in technological processes for the production of glass, dyes, fabrics, paper, metal glue, wood preservatives. In addition, it is used in the production of pesticides, feed additives and pharmaceuticals.The main anthropogenic sources of arsenic compounds entering natural waters are: the pharmaceutical industry, glass and ceramics, pesticides, herbicides, paints, woodworking, oil refineries, as well as metal and alloy smelters. Since arsenic and all its compounds are poisonous and carcinogenic, enterprises need to control and monitor the level of this element in wastewater.
Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element. It is often used in the electronics, glass, and agricultural industries in the production of animal feed and food additives. For many enterprises, it is necessary to control and monitor the level of Selenium in wastewater. Water purification from Selenium must be carried out if the content of this chemical element exceeds the norm.
Bromine is a chemical element that belongs to the halogen family, along with chlorine, fluorine and iodine. It exists as Br2 and is a red-brown liquid at room temperature that easily evaporates to form a red-brown gas.Bromine can be found naturally in the form of organobromine salts or organobromine compounds produced by marine organisms. Bromine can also be found in rocks and in the earth’s crust.Bromine can be used as an alternative to chlorine to disinfect water. It is not usually used for drinking water purification, but is popular in swimming pools, waste water and cooling water. Bromine acts as a disinfectant, ionizing pollutants and breaking their chemical bonds.
Zirconium alloys are solid solutions of zirconium. Zirconium has a very low thermal neutron capture cross-section, high hardness, ductility, and corrosion resistance. One of the main applications of zirconium alloys is nuclear technology; they are used as a cladding for fuel elements in nuclear reactors, especially in water reactors. A typical composition of zirconium alloys for the nuclear industry consists of more than 95% zirconium and less than 2% tin, niobium, iron, chromium, nickel and other metals, which are added to improve mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.
Due to the widespread industrial use of molybdenum, it can be found in wastewater from petroleum refining, chemical plants, textile mills, and fertilizer plants. The disposal of industrial wastewater containing molybdenum raises some environmental problems. It poses a threat to the environment, strongly affecting terrestrial and aquatic organisms.If molybdenum is present in drinking water at levels above the permitted level, it can be toxic to animals and humans. Industrial wastewaters require molybdenum treatment before discharge. To comply with these standards, it is necessary to monitor the level of molybdenum in mine waters, industrial effluents, ground and surface waters.
Pure silver is nearly white, lustrous, soft, very ductile, malleable, it is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.Water treatment systems that electrolytically generate silver ions for the control of bacteria (including planktonic legionella) in hot and cold water systems are becoming more and more common. Silver concentration should be a minimum of 20ppb and higher with hard water feed. It is important to take into consideration regulations on maximum allowable silver levels and monitor it.Silver is applied in water purification for swimming pool water disinfection. Only small amounts are applied that are not a health hazard. It may even be lethal to bacteria, and it inhibits fungi reproduction.
Cadmium is a by-product for many of industrial processes and so is often present in the wastewater.Cadmium can be introduced to food produce through contaminated wash waters. Ingestion of cadmium is dangerous even at low levels, therefore water which is being used to wash food produce should be routinely monitored to ensure that produce is not compromised.Phosphate fertilizers naturally contain cadmium. This accumulates in the soil and can contaminate water supplies. Irrigation water with high levels of cadmium can also contaminate produce and lead to high levels of human cadmium consumption.
Tin is a light non-ferrous metal. Often, Tin is used in the production of solders, bearing and printing alloys. The source of industrial wastewater pollution with Tin can be: dyeing fabrics, the production of organic paints, the manufacture of alloys, etc. Tin is often used in various industries, the content of this element in industrial wastewater can be quite high. Because of this, enterprises are obliged to control and monitor the level of Tin in wastewater.
Antimony is a semi-metallic chemical element that can exist in two forms: metallic and non-metallic. Antimony is used to make certain types of semiconductor devices, paints, ceramic enamels, glass, and ceramics. Often, heavy metals, in particular antimony compounds, enter surface water with wastewater from rubber, glass, and dyeing enterprises. Therefore, an important stage in the work of such industries is the process of control and monitoring of the content of Antimony compounds in wastewater.
Іodine - halogen, refers to chemically active non-metals. It is used in the preparation of certain medicines and in the production of printing inks. Iodine is also found in water purification tablets that are used to prepare drinking water. Despite the fact that iodine is naturally present in water, for enterprises in whose work water is the main production product, it is necessary to accurately dose iodine, control its concentration in water and assess its compliance with the standard. Iodine compounds are found in some wastewater from the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this regard, the control of iodine in wastewater is of particular relevance.
Mercury is a natural chemical element. It is located in the earth’s crust (including coal deposits) and becomes a problem for the environment when it is released from rocks and enters the atmosphere and water. All mercury that is released into the environment eventually ends up in soil or surface water. Most of the mercury released by human activities is released into the atmosphere. In some forms of human activity, mercury enters directly into the soil or water along with agricultural fertilizers and industrial wastewater. According to industry regulations, industries that are the main source of mercury release into the environment must use the latest technologies to monitor and reduce emissions, reducing risks to the population and to protect the environment.
Lead is a typical industrial metal. Lead and all its organic compounds are very toxic, and poisoning with it is possible in many technological processes: smelting, making lead paints, mining ore. In addition, lead pollution of the environment is considered one of the most dangerous. Lead and its various compounds enter aquatic systems as a result of a variety of human activities associated with the extraction, processing or use of metals or substances containing metallic contaminants. The most common contamination of fresh water by metals is mining companies. In this regard, enterprises need to strictly control the level of acceptable lead content in wastewater.